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The Hopewell peoples occupied this region more than 2,000 years ago and built great earthen mounds – some of which are still preserved today. Around 1700 AD, people of the Three Fires - the Ottawa (Odawa), Chippewa (Ojibwa) and Potawatomi Indians - established villages around the Grand River. Learn more about the Native American people of Grand Rapids.
French-Canadian Joseph La Framboise and his wife Magdalene, who was of mixed Ottawa and French descent, established the first fur-trading post here in 1806. Twenty-some years later, Detroit-born Louis Campau, known as the official founder of Grand Rapids, built a trading post, blacksmith shop and cabin on the banks of the Grand River. Grand Rapids became a village in 1838 and a city in 1850.
Gypsum (plaster) mining was the area’s first major industry. Commercial gypsum operation began in 1841 and there were eventually 13 separate mine operators. Our plaster was sent around the world, leading citizens to view gypsum as a "mine of apparently inexhaustible wealth to our city." The mines are no longer active and now serve as secure dry storage sites. The Mines Golf Club and Millennium Park are built atop old gypsum mines.
Grand Rapids became a major lumbering center in the late 19th century, processing logs that were floated down the Grand River from elsewhere in the region. The ready supply of timber led to the city’s second great industry – fine wood furniture. At the height of the lumber boom, Grand Rapids was home to 44 furniture companies and the city was recognized worldwide as America’s Furniture City. Today, our manufacturing focus has shifted away from residential furniture to office furniture, but the Heritage Hill mansions of lumber barons and furniture magnates still bear witness to a glorious era.
The Grand Rapids and Indiana Railroad, founded in 1854, became the country’s longest north-south rail line when it provided passenger and freight services between Cincinnati, Ohio and the Straits of Mackinac, the waterway between Michigan’s Lower and Upper Peninsulas. The railroad largely ceased operation a century later – and much of the old railway, along with other abandoned rail lines, has been converted to paved biking and running trails.
In 1836, Englishman John Pannell built a small brewery in what would become downtown Grand Rapids. The local brewing scene thrived until Prohibition and limped along thereafter – the last remaining brewery closed in 1951. Our long dry spell ended in 1997, when a pair of college classmates opened Canal Street Brewing, which was later renamed Founders Brewing Company. Founders is now the largest of 75+ local craft breweries – and Grand Rapids is now acknowledged as Beer City USA.
In 1945, Grand Rapids became the first city in the world to fluoridate its drinking water – a move hailed as one of the 20th century’s greatest public health achievements. Local innovators went on to pioneer advances in rehabilitative care, joint implants, generic drugs and more before establishing one of the 21st century’s fastest-growing life-sciences clusters – the Medical Mile.